RAPE, ABUSE OR INCEST
- Telephone Counseling
- Crisis Intervention
- Information &
- TDD access
- Telephone Counseling
police & courts.
Counseling for survivors, friends, family.
- In-school counseling
- Support Group
- Public awareness
& prevention education.
for full sized version
for full sized version
May 6 & 7, 2013
Atlantic Sands Hotel & Conference Center
Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
Details at: http://www.dcadv.org/advocates-retreat
It's time ... to get !nvolved
Engaging Bystanders in Sexual Violence Prevention
Itís time Ö to incorporate
the bystander approach
into sexual violence prevention
This three-page fact sheet presents a brief overview of the bystander intervention
approach to sexual violence prevention, key points about this type of intervention,
evidence-based outcomes regarding the effectiveness of the approach and key
resources for finding additional information about this model.
Key features of the bystander approach
A bystander, or witness, is someone who sees a situation but may or may not know what
to do, may think others will act or may be afraid to do something. Bystander education
programs teach potential witnesses safe and positive ways that they can act to prevent or
intervene when there is a risk for sexual violence.
This approach gives community members specific roles that they can use in preventing
sexual violence, including naming and stopping situations that could lead to sexual
violence before it happens, stepping in during an incident, and speaking out against ideas
and behaviors that support sexual violence. It also gives individuals the skills to be an
effective and supportive ally to survivors after an assault has taken place. Research shows
that this technique is a promising way to help prevent the widespread problem of sexual
violence across campuses and other communities.
Five steps toward taking action
(Adapted from Darley and Latane, 1968)
1. Notice the event along a continuum of actions
2. Consider whether the situation demands your action
3. Decide if you have a responsibility to act
4. Choose what form of assistance to use
5. Understand how to implement the choice safely
Successful bystander education prevention programs
Everyone has a role in changing community knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. In-person
bystander education prevention programs provide chances to build skills for helping
directly or indirectly without placing bystandersí safety in jeopardy by focusing on
practicing intervention strategies. Successful in-person programs usually include
single-sex groups led by peer or professional educators using active learning methods that
involve participants in discussions rather than lecturing to them. The number of programs
employing part or all of the bystander approach is growing, but only a few have been
scientifically evaluated and found to be effective in changing knowledge, attitudes, or
behaviors. These evaluated programs are listed below.
Bringing in the Bystanderô: Teaches college students appropriate and safe ways to
intervene before, during and after a sexual assault. Experimental evaluation found this
program to be effective regarding changes in knowledge, attitudes and behavior
Menís Program/1 in 4: Focuses on empathy building with college men, teaching them
ways of being supportive allies for survivors after incidents of violence. This program was
shown to be effective regarding attitude change (
Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP): Focuses on student leaders and athletes in
high school and college about menís roles in gender violence prevention. The program
uses sports metaphors and framework. Initial evaluation of the program indicated that it is
effective regarding attitude change ( www.jacksonkatz.com/mvp.html
MyStrength Club: Provides a multi-session club for high school boys, providing them
a place where they can explore ways they can help prevent sexual violence. Preliminary
evaluation showed promising results regarding increase in participantsí likelihood to say
they would make changes in community and be willing to interrupt in instances of sexual
harassment ( www.MyStrength.org
Social marketing campaigns
A growing number of social marketing or outreach campaigns utilize a bystander
approach to preventing dating and sexual violence. Here are examples of two campaigns:
Know Your Power Campaign: Consists of four posters each featuring a different scene
with bystanders modeling appropriate and safe intervention behaviors. A preliminary
evaluation of the campaign indicates that promising differences were found between
awareness of students who reported seeing the campaign compared to those who did not
The Red Flag Campaign: Composed of six posters each focusing on a specific
component of dating violence. The backside of each poster features a comparison of the
positive qualities of healthy relationships versus the red flags of dating violence
National Sexual Violence Resource Center www.nsvrc.org/saam
123 North Enola Drive, Enola, PA 17025 firstname.lastname@example.org
Click here for
More info >>
Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., & Plante, E. G. (2007). Sexual violence prevention through
bystander education: An experimental evaluation. Journal of Community
Psychology, 35, 463-481.
Darley, J.M., & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of
responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377-383.
Foubert, J.D. (2000). The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity
menís attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior. Journal of American College
Health, 48, 158Ė163.
Lee, D. S., Guy, L. Perry, B., Sniffen C. K., & Mixson, S. A. (2007). Sexual violence prevention.
The Prevention Researcher, 14, 15-20.
Potter, S. J., Moynihan, M. M., Stapleton, J. G., & Banyard, V. B. (2009). Empowering
bystanders to prevent campus sexual violence: An exploratory study using a poster
campaign. Violence Against Women, 15, 106-121.
Ward, K.J. (2001). Mentors in Violence Prevention Program Evaluation 1999Ė2000.
(Unpublished report.) Northeastern University. Boston, MA.
This fact sheet was developed by Mary M. Moynihan and is part of the CD for the 2011
Sexual Assault Awareness Month campaign. For more information, contact the National
Sexual Violence Resource Center at www.nsvrc.org/saam
900,000 calls -
24 hours a day,
7 days a week.
Network of Delaware:
Statewide network of
law enforcement professionals, victims
advocates, SANE programs, professionals
& volunteers striving to improve
services for sexual assault victims:
- Public education
- Sexual Assault Nurse
- Sex Offender
Provides telephone contact
with homebound elderly, disenfranchised in
New Castle County